With over 200 votes counted, the cover of Development’s Special Issue on Plant Development has won the voter’s favourite cover for 2016! The fruit bat came second, and in joint third the fly nervous system and the fly legs. A fitting variety of model organisms for a great year in developmental biology!
In our in-house competition, the fly nervous system won the Development team’s vote (showing we’re not too far from public opinion!) , but sadly lost out to these beautiful blood cells from our sister journal in the Company of Biologists, The Journal of Cell Science.
The cover images for the 24 issues ofDevelopment in 2016 showcase the breadth and beauty of developmental biology today. Model systems from plants to bats were imaged in various modalities – confocal and electron microscopy, microCT, good old fashioned skeletal preps and darkfield – and we also featured some in silico modelling.
Which one is your favourite? You can vote below the gallery (click to expand), and tell us why in the comments section.
Three-dimensional rendering of a confocal image stack showing a single alveolar type 1 cell with expansive cellular extensions (green, GFP, genetically labelled with HopxCreER/+; RosamTmG/+) intertwined with the vasculature (blue, ICAM2) in the mouse lung. From Yang et al., p. 54.
Embryonic day 8 chicken hindgut was cultured for 72 hours on a fibronectin-coated surface in the presence of supplemental glial-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf). Immunostaining with a neural crest cell marker (Hnk1; red) and a neuronal marker (Tuj1; green) demonstrates robust migration of the enteric neural crest cells. From Nagy et al. p. 264.
Ovules of Arabidopsis bel1 cna phb phv mutants. The ovulate axis of extant angiosperms does not branch, whereas some fossil gymnosperms show branching ovules. The branched ovulate axis of this mutant might thus bridge the gap in ovule body plan. From Yamada et al., p. 422.
Differing Six2/SIX2 transcriptional networks in mouse and human kidney. E15.5 mouse kidney next to a 15.5 week human fetal kidney with Six2/SIX2 (cyan) marking the nephron progenitors and cytokeratin (red) highlighting the collecting duct system. Nuclei are in blue. From O’Brien et al., p. 595.
Stage 19 short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). On the left side is an image of the fixed embryo before staining; the right side shows the embryo after Alcian Blue staining for cartilage. This image, taken by Idoia Quintana-Urzainqui, Paola Bertucci, Peter Warth and Chi-Kuo Hu at the 2014 Woods Hole MBL Embryology course, was chosen by readers of the Node.
Actin filaments (red) are enriched at the borders of enveloping layer cells surrounding the blastoderm (nuclei, blue), in the yolk cell cortex, and in a band adjacent to the blastoderm, where they function in cell movements of epiboly and maintain integrity of the blastoderm and yolk cell, a process that is disturbed in zebrafish split top embryos. From Langdon et al., p. 1016.
A segmented brain MRI scan for a heterozygous Tubb5 knockout mouse. Depicted are the olfactory bulbs (yellow), cortex (cyan), putamen (dark blue), lateral ventricles (red), hippocampus (green), colliculi (maroon) and cerebellum (pink). These mice have microcephaly reminiscent of patients with TUBB5 mutations. From Breuss et al., p. 1126.
A skeletal preparation of an embryonic bamboo shark (ventral view) showing the gill arch branchial rays and pectoral fins. The branchial rays of cartilaginous fishes and the paired fins/limbs of jawed vertebrates are patterned by a common Shh-dependent signalling mechanism. From Gillis and Hall, p. 1313.
Stage 17 Drosophila melanogaster embryo (ventral view) showing Elav (green; neuronal nuclei), Spalt (yellow; subset of neuron and muscle nuclei), BP102 (red; CNS axons), Eve (magenta; subset of CNS nuclei, and ring of nuclei around anal pad), HRP (grey; neuronal cell bodies and axons) and DAPI (blue; nuclei) staining. The image was taken by Connie Rich (University of Cambridge, UK) at the 2014 Woods Hole MBL embryology course and was chosen by readers of the Node
Cardiac atrium of a 6-week-old zebrafish labelled by priZm multicolour fate-mapping, with colour recombination generated by an atrial cardiomyocyte-specific inducible Cre recombinase. Coloured patches are multicellular muscle clones derived from individual atrial cardiomyocytes present at 3 days post-fertilization, illuminating the morphological changes and proliferation dynamics that shape the maturing chamber. From Foglia et al., p. 1688.
Müller glia-derived progenitor cells in acutely damaged chick retina. The retinal section was labelled with antibodies to Sox9 (red), neurofilament (green), phospho-histone H3 (blue) and CD45 (magenta). From Zelinka et al., p. 1859
3D volume-rendered heart of a 75 hpf Tg(kdrl:EGFP) zebrafish larva. Between the atrium and ventricle (right and left side of image, respectively) is the atrioventricular canal, where the emerging valve leaflet is recognisable as a folded structure. Such 3D analyses provide fundamental insights into the cellular rearrangements underlying cardiac valve formation in zebrafish. From Pestel et al., p. 2217
The mosaic of Rhodopsin 5 (blue)- and Rhodopsin 6 (red)-expressing R8 photoreceptors in the retina of Drosophila melanogaster. The insulator protein BEAF-32 is required for Hippo pathway activity to correctly specify R8 subtypes. From Jukam et al., p. 2389
A frontal section of a mouse heart at embryonic day 17.5 showing normal anatomy, which can be disrupted by short-term exposure to hypoxia during gestation. The image was generated using optical projection tomography. From Shi et al., p. 2561.
Mouse E16.5 dorsal tongue filiform papillary epithelia are highly patterned as rosettes, ordered between regions of intercalating lamina propria. Epithelium is demarcated by membranously expressed E-cadherin (Rhodamine Red-X); nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). The mitotic spindle orientation factor LGN has multiple distinct functions in regulating oral epithelial development by controlling cell division orientation. From Byrd et al., p. 2803.
The hyaloid blood vessel network (red) with associated macrophages (green) isolated from a mouse eye. This, along with the retinal vessel network, was used to provide new insights into the role of apoptosis during angiogenesis and vessel regression. From Watson et al. p. 2973
Posterior (left) and lateral (right) views of the squid Doryteuthis pealeii at hatching scanned using microCT. Segmented reconstructions of brain regions correspond to a fate map generated during early embryogenesis. Depicted are the pedal (purple), buccal (cyan), paliovisceral (green) and cerebral (pink) ganglia, the optic lobes (dark blue), the retina (red) and the lens/iris (yellow). From Koenig et al., p. 3168
Computational modelling predicts an asymmetric Aux1 pattern in the root during halotropism (right, stylised picture). The asymmetric Aux1-YFP pattern observed in an Arabidopsis thaliana root during halotropism (left) confirms the model predictions. See Research article by van den Berg et al., p. 3350.
Leg phenotypes obtained after a progressive reduction in the dose of Sp family genes in Drosophila. Clockwise from top left: wild type, btd mutant, Sp1 mutant, Sp1 mutant with one mutant copy of btd and Sp1, btd double deletion mutant. From Córdoba et al., p. 3623.
Multiple stages of Tg(fli1a:egfp)y1 zebrafish embryos immunostained for pERK (red) and EGFP (green). In endothelial cells, ERK is activated in distinct signalling contexts to promote angiogenesis and lymphatic morphogenesis during development. From Shin et al., p 3796.
Spectral karyotyping of a metaphase cerebellar granule neuron progenitor from a P3 mouse with conditional deletion of Atr demonstrates complex chromosomal rearrangements, including fusions and translocations, revealing that ATR plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic integrity during brain development. Each chromosome is labelled in a different colour. From Lang et al., p. 4038.
Sea star gastrula larva showing neural precursor soxc-expressing cells (green) scattered throughout the ectoderm, dividing to produce lhx2/9-expressing daughters (pink) in the anterior ectoderm. DAPI staining shows nuclei (blue). Conserved anteroposterior patterning domains control the progression of neurogenesis in this deuterostome. See From Cheatle Jarvela et al., p. 4214.
Scanning electron microscopy of E10.5 control (left) and Six3neo/− (right) mouse embryos. The telencephalic vesicles (pseudocolored in red), and the medial (pseudocolored in yellow) and lateral (pseudocolored in green) nasal prominences are well separated in control embryos; however, only one small telencephalic vesicle and no medial nasal prominences are present in Six3neo/− embryos. From Geng et al., p. 4462.
3D reconstructions of mid-gastrula (left) and mid-neurula (right) Ciona embryos electroporated with transgenes driving H2B:Cherry (red) in the epidermis and YFP-CAAX (green) in the neural plate. Nodal and FGF control the cellular behaviours underlying morphogenesis of the neural tube during Ciona development. From Navarette and Levine, p. 4665.